Langley Alloys – How to source giant super duplex components

Super duplex grades provide an unrivalled combination of high power, corrosion resistance and price. However, they are sensitive to the formation of dangerous microstructural phases if cooled too slowly during production or heated too extremely throughout fabrication.
In simple phrases, a bar of metal is a crystalline material. The inside structure is made up of individual crystal grains of differing sizes and orientations, the nature of which influences its physical and mechanical properties. The microstructure is an element of composition and thermal historical past. For this purpose, steelmaking is often compared with baking – controlling the recipe and the time and temperature in the ‘oven’.
Super duplex stainless steels are a combination of ferritic and austenitic grains that give them their beneficial properties. Solution annealing ensures a constant composition all through the item, frozen in place by fast quenching.
If cooling is just too gradual, other crystal grains known as ‘phases’, might type. Sigma and chi ‘intermetallic phases’ are rich in chromium, meaning the surrounding area has a lower chromium content material. As chromium encourages corrosion resistance, the areas around the sigma phase are of much lower corrosion resistance. Also, these hard, brittle phases significantly decrease impact strength.
So, how does this phenomenon limit the maximum diameter of super duplex chrome steel bars? Even when quenched, it isn’t possible to take away the heat from large bars quickly enough to keep away from the formation of these negative phases. Norsok-qualified producers management the switch time from furnace to quench, and the maximum water temperature. However, above 16” /, the cooling price remains to be too slow to guarantee no sigma or chi formation.
For this reason, Langley Alloys chooses not to stock tremendous duplex chrome steel bars in bigger diameters. If you should produce bigger components what are your options?

We stock super duplex plate up to 3” / 76.2mm thickness. This permits bigger diameter items to be supplied, albeit limited to the maximum thickness of the plate.
If the half cannot be machined from 3”/76.2mm thick plate or 16”/406.4mm diameter bar then bespoke forgings might be a work around, if the ruling part does not exceed this maximum allowable measurement.
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is less extensively used, on account of its relative cost, lead time and availability. Parts are produced from powder in high-pressure furnaces. As the mould (‘pattern’) for the powder to create the part can embrace central bores, the ruling part may be lower than a strong item. Subsequent heat remedy can achieve the required cooling rates.
Heat remedy after machining is viable for some components. Machining could take away as much as half the beginning weight of a stable bar. Central bores may dramatically cut back the ruling part. The solely threat after warmth therapy is potential distortion during cooling. Therefore, warmth therapy ought to be undertaken after proof machining to permit a ultimate end machine stage.
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